The Contamination of the Earth

From History for a Sustainable Future

The Contamination of the Earth

A History of Pollutions in the Industrial Age

By François Jarrige and Thomas Le Roux

Translated by Janice Egan and Michael Egan

The trajectories of pollution in global capitalism, from the toxic waste of early tanneries to the poisonous effects of pesticides in the twentieth century.





The trajectories of pollution in global capitalism, from the toxic waste of early tanneries to the poisonous effects of pesticides in the twentieth century.

Through the centuries, the march of economic progress has been accompanied by the spread of industrial pollution. As our capacities for production and our aptitude for consumption have increased, so have their byproducts—chemical contamination from fertilizers and pesticides, diesel emissions, oil spills, a vast “plastic continent” found floating in the ocean. The Contamination of the Earth offers a social and political history of industrial pollution, mapping its trajectories over three centuries, from the toxic wastes of early tanneries to the fossil fuel energy regime of the twentieth century.

The authors describe how, from 1750 onward, in contrast to the early modern period, polluted water and air came to be seen as inevitable side effects of industrialization, which was universally regarded as beneficial. By the nineteenth century, pollutants became constituent elements of modernity. The authors trace the evolution of these various pollutions, and describe the ways in which they were simultaneously denounced and permitted. The twentieth century saw new and massive scales of pollution: chemicals that resisted biodegradation, including napalm and other defoliants used as weapons of war; the ascendancy of oil; and a lifestyle defined by consumption. In the 1970s, pollution became a political issue, but efforts—local, national, and global—to regulate it often fell short. Viewing the history of pollution though a political lens, the authors also offer lessons for the future of the industrial world.


$39.95 T ISBN: 9780262043830 480 pp. | 6 in x 9 in 27 b&w illus.


$19.95 T ISBN: 9780262542739 480 pp. | 6 in x 9 in 27 b&w illus.


Janice Egan and Michael Egan.


  • Scholarly rather than polemical and of interest to students of environmental and economic history.

    Kirkus Reviews

  • "The result [of the study] is impressive: a high level of information, extensive analyses with a wide scope, original propositions, and a new, historical picture of global pollution. The book will become a standard work in environmental history."

    Harry Lintsen

    Technology & Culture

    April 2022


  • “How well do we need to understand industrial pollution and the public health sacrifices that are made by allowing it to continue before we stop it? Francois Jarrige and Thomas Le Roux broach that question in this superb history. With Contamination of the Earth  they challenge once again the Faustian bargain humanity is making with 'progress.'”

    Mark Dowie

    investigative historian and Lecturer Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley, and author of Losing Ground: American Environmentalism at the Close of the Twentieth Century

  • “Jarrige and Le Roux's magisterial global history of pollutions delivers on its promise. Spanning time, geography, and industry, their account synthesizes a vast historical archive with a sharp focus on the political and economic factors that explain how, why, and where global environmental contamination developed.”

    Julie Sze

    University of California, Davis, and author of Environmental Justice in a Moment of Danger

  • The Contamination of the Earth is an essential corrective to how pollution(s)—fittingly pluralized—have been studied age by age, case by case, sector by sector. Few have attempted such a sweeping synthesis of pollutions' myriad drivers and consequences."

    Rebecca Gasior Altman

    writer and environmental sociologist


  • Choice 2021 Outstanding Academic Title